However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries, most notably the German Revolution, contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society. Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order[69] for his bravery during the June 1919 battle of Tsaritsyn for single-handedly storming and capturing the fortified city of Tsaritsyn, under heavy shell fire in a single tank; this led to the capture of over 40,000 prisoners. During winter 1920, Ural Cossacks and their families, totaling about 15,000 people, headed south along the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea towards Fort Alexandrovsk. A detailed map animation of Northern Eurasia between 1917 and 1931, focusing on the Russian Civil War, but also showing some peripheral conflicts. During several months in winter and spring of 1919, hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place in the Donbass, where the attacking Bolsheviks met White forces. On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir, and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. An attempted invasion of southern Ukraine was rebuffed by the Black Army under Makhno's command. In Moscow a Left SR uprising was put down by the Bolsheviks, using Cheka military detachments. Former Imperial Russian and then Finnish Gen. Mannerheim planned an intervention to help the Whites in Russia capture Petrograd. The Communist Party did not completely dismantle this group until 1934. Read more about this topic:  Russian Civil War, Aftermath, Allied Intervention in The Russian Civil War. The Red 5th Army, led by the capable commander Tukhachevsky, captured Elabuga on 26 May, Sarapul on 2 June and Izevsk on the 7th and continued to push forward. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920 and cattle from 58 to 37 million. By 1922 there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from World War I and the civil war.[99]. After a series of reverses at the front, the Bolsheviks' War Commissar, Trotsky, instituted increasingly harsh measures in order to prevent unauthorised withdrawals, desertions and mutinies in the Red Army. Facts about Russian Civil War 3: the end of Russian Civil War. Combat Deaths: Over 110,000 However, because the Committee lacked representation of the native population and poor Russian settlers, they had to release the Bolshevik prisoners almost immediately due to public outcry, and a successful takeover of this government body took place two months later in November. In the early 1900s, the Russian Civil War caused as many as 9 million deaths. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. Volunteers of this small army were mostly officers of the old Russian army, military cadets and students. The Whites fell back eastwards to Ufa and Orenburg. Red Army attacks on the anarchist forces and their sympathisers increased in ferocity throughout 1921. During this conference a regional bureau of Muslim organisations of the Russian Bolshevik Party was formed. With the end of the war, the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia—many with General Wrangel, some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. "Reconsidering the Ukrainian Revolution 1917–1921: The Dialectics of National Liberation and Social Emancipation. While resistance to the Red Guards began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one-party rule became a catalyst[20] for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new Soviet government. With over 825,000 combat fatalities and 2 million more war-related casualties, the Russian Civil War is considered the most costly civil war in modern times. 7,000,000–12,000,000 total casualties, includingcivilians and non-combatants. [67] Adm. Kolchak lost control of his government shortly after this defeat; White Army forces in Siberia essentially ceased to exist by December. There were an additional 6,242,926 hospitalizations due to sickness. The young nation experienced bloodshed of a magnitude that has not been equaled since by any other American conflict. Not only was the wartime carnage on the battlefields great, but many civilians died as well. On 6–7 February Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies thrown through the ice of the frozen Angara River, just before the arrival of the White Army in the area.[83]. Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. These émigrés included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia. [96] Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. [19] By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers.[18]. Millions more also died of widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. This remained an organized force in the Crimea throughout 1920. "Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the … The first regional congress of the Russian Communist Party convened in the city of Tashkent in June 1918 in order to build support for a local Bolshevik Party.[60]. The remaining White forces under Yevgeny Miller evacuated the region in February 1920. In the October Revolution the Bolshevik Party directed the Red Guard (armed groups of workers and Imperial army deserters) to seize control of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) and immediately began the armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire. [65], At the beginning of March 1919 the general offensive of the Whites on the eastern front began. The Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865, and remains the deadliest war in American history. (See article below) Union Civil War Casualties. Military casualty statistics listed here include 6.8 million combat related deaths as well as 3 million military deaths caused by accidents, disease and deaths while prisoners of war. The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War started on 30 … At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. After the treaty, it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Promising an end to the war and "all power to the Soviets," the Bolsheviks then ended dual power by suppressing the Provisional Government in late October, on the eve of the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in what would be the second Revolution of 1917. At this point Yudenich, short of supplies, decided to call off the siege of the city and withdrew, repeatedly asking permission to withdraw his army across the border to Estonia. [88] Some sources claimed at least 250,000 summary executions of "enemies of the people" with estimates reaching above a million. A biography of Kaledin (in Russian), "Ukraine – World War I and the struggle for independence", 100 years ago Bakhmut and the rest of Donbass liberated, "The Ukrainian Navy and the Crimean Issue in 1917–18", War Without Fronts: Atamans and Commissars in Ukraine, 1917–1919, "Workers' Organizations in the Russian Revolution", "Distinguished Service Order citation for Bruce in the 1920, https://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_22_2_03_mentzel.pdf, "Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917", And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, 1918–1930, ‘If Grandma had Whiskers … ’: Could the Anti-Bolsheviks have won the Russian Revolutions and Civil Wars? Mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries followed. The human cost of the Civil War was beyond anybody's expectations. [74] Despite this success for the Red Army, the White Army's assaults in European Russia and other areas broke communication between Moscow and Tashkent. 100,000-120,000 – Syrian civil war (2011–present), see Casualties of the Syrian civil war 100,000-120,000 - First War of Scottish Independence (1296-1328) 100,000 - Insurgency in Laos (1975 - 2007) [56] The houses are crumbling. He was able to restore order to the dispirited troops and reshape an army that could fight as a regular force again. Trotsky armed all available workers, men and women, ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. Russian Civil War - Russian Civil War - Foreign intervention: The Allied governments now had to decide on their policy in the confused Russian situation. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, capitalism and social democracy, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. New military technology combined with old-fashioned tactical doctrine to produce a scale of battle casualties unprecedented in American history. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. In Omsk the Russian Provisional Government quickly came under the influence – then the dominance – of its new War Minister, Rear-Admiral Kolchak. Germany landed its Caucasus Expedition troops in Poti on 8 June. For a time Central Asia was completely cut off from Red Army forces in Siberia. David Bullock, the author of The Russian Civil War (2008) has argued that no one has been able to calculate accurately the cost in human life attributable to the Civil War. An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army. The Bolsheviks soon lost the support of other far-left allies such as the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries due to their acceptance of the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk presented by Germany.[14]. In the European part of Russia the war was fought across three main fronts: the eastern, the southern and the northwestern. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined. At the end of the Civil War, the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. After the capture of Tsaritsyn, Wrangel pushed towards Saratov but Trotsky, seeing the danger of the union with Kolchak, against whom the Red command was concentrating large masses of troops, repulsed his attempts with heavy losses. As in any civil war, it is particularly difficult to distinguish between military operations as such and "collateral" violence - to use this anachronistic term in the context of the events of those years: civilian massacres, hostage takings, deportations of populations collectively considered as "enemies." In Central Asia, Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923, where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. By 1921, cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. Subsequently, the Dashanaks, Right SRs and Mensheviks started negotiations with Gen. Dunsterville, the commander of the British troops in Persia. Peter C. Mentzel, "Chaos and Utopia: The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution and Civil War". This section includes books and articles, as well as compilations of primary sources. The Baku Soviet Commune was established on 13 April. [82], In Siberia, Admiral Kolchak's army had disintegrated. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. In September 1918 Komuch, the Siberian Provisional Government and other local anti-Soviet governments met in Ufa and agreed to form a new Provisional All-Russian Government in Omsk, headed by a Directory of five: two Socialist-Revolutionaries (Nikolai Avksentiev and Vladimir Zenzinov), two Kadets (V. A. Vinogradov and PV Vologodskii) and General Vasily Boldyrev. The remaining scattered resistance was more or less a matter of mopping up for the Bolsheviks. Not only one must see alliances, but analyze the reason behind the different formations of different factions. Private contractors belonging to the Wagner Group in Libya had suffered heavy casualties. [80], Stymied in his efforts to consolidate his hold, Wrangel then attacked north in an attempt to take advantage of recent Red Army defeats at the close of the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1920. The Bolsheviks appointed political commissars to each unit of the Red Army to maintain morale and to ensure loyalty. [79], After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest. [72] The Cossack Don Army under the command of Gen. Vladimir Sidorin continued north towards Voronezh, but there Semyon Budyonny's cavalrymen defeated them on 24 October. The Cossacks had been unable to organise and capitalise on their successes at the end of 1918. After the fall of Kazan, Vladimir Lenin called for the dispatch of Petrograd workers to the Kazan Front: "We must send down the maximum number of Petrograd workers: (1) a few dozen 'leaders' like Kayurov; (2) a few thousand militants 'from the ranks'". Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. The leading Tsarist officers of the Imperial Russian Army also started to resist. During this first period the Bolsheviks took control of Central Asia out of the hands of the Provisional Government and White Army, setting up a base for the Communist Party in the Steppe and Turkestan, where nearly two million Russian settlers were located.[30]. Under pressure from the Central Powers, Trotsky ordered the disarming and arrest of the legionaries, which created tensions with the Bolsheviks. The Russian Civil War was a deadly war in the country for the casualties reached 7,000,000 to 12,000,000 people. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. The high tide of the White movement against the Soviets had been reached in September 1919. Not long after this Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk without the protection of the army, and turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk. Download this stock image: Casualties of the Red and White Armies in Siberia, Russian Civil War, c1918-c1923. [86], During the Red Terror, estimates of Cheka executions range from 12,733 to 1.7 million. British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their inability to dispel the popular image that they were not only associated with Tsarist Russia but supportive of a Tsarist restoration, as well. [34] The Bolsheviks attempted to take control of the Committee in Tashkent on 12 September 1917 but it was unsuccessful, and many leaders were arrested. The Russian Civil War ended on November 11, 1920 with the defeat of the White Forces, the Red Army's chief enemy, on the Crimean peninsula. During World War II, most of the world's nations were divided between two different military alliances known as the Axis and the Allies.. One of the things that stands out most about this war is the number of casualties. He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk and designated Gen. Grigory Semyonov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. The attack was well-executed, using night attacks and lightning cavalry maneuvers to turn the flanks of the defending Red Army. Their military forces, bolstered by forced conscriptions and terror[21] as well as foreign influence, under the leadership of General Nikolai Yudenich, Admiral Alexander Kolchak and General Anton Denikin, became known as the White movement (sometimes referred to as the "White Army") and controlled significant parts of the former Russian Empire for most of the war. They were worried about a possible Russo-German alliance, the prospect of the Bolsheviks making good on their threats to default on Imperial Russia's massive foreign loans and the possibility that Communist revolutionary ideas would spread (a concern shared by many Central Powers). Fierce fighting took place at the key rail junction of Kastornoye, which was taken on 15 November; Kursk was retaken two days later.[73]. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus in 1920 alone. Its mission was to prove that Russia had been a victim of the conflict and of foreign intervention during the civil war. More than 100 million people from over 30 nations participated in the war. The smaller body (Kiev and Odessa troops) withdrew to Odessa and the Crimea, which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks during the winter of 1919–1920. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty, and the formal agreement, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was ratified on 6 March. [19] At the start of the civil war, former Tsarist officers formed three-quarters of the Red Army officer-corps. Simultaneously Russian officers' organisations overthrew the Bolsheviks in Petropavlovsk (in present-day Kazakhstan) and in Omsk. Nestor Makhno Nestor Makhno Addendum: Civilian Casualties, The Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War. The Russian Civil War was a deadly war in the country for the casualties reached 7,000,000 to 12,000,000 people. In November, Alexander Kolchak launched a coup to take control of the Russian State, establishing a de facto military dictatorship. In the last few days, the bodies of Russian citizens killed in Libya’s civil war were sent back home for burial. Some of the military forces were set up on the basis of clandestine officers' organizations in the cities. Retreat of the eastern front by White armies lasted three months, until mid-February 1920, when the survivors, after crossing Lake Baikal, reached Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov's forces. The Russian Civil War - When did it end? The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. "The Disintegration of the Russian Army in 1917: Factors and Actors in the Process. A Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine during the war. A civil war is defined by Patrick M. Reagan (2000) and Nicholas Sambanis (2002, 218) as a war between organised groups within the same state leading to high intensity conflict and casualties of over 1,000 people, a definition which applies to the Donbas. [76], Communication difficulties with Red Army forces in Siberia and European Russia ceased to be a problem by mid-November 1919. However, on 14 October the Reds counterattacked, and thus began the uninterrupted retreat of the Whites to the east. Officially, Russia isn’t part of the fighting in North Africa, which has been ongoing for several years now. The civil war was fought mostly by Russians loyal to (or forced to fight for) Lenin's communist Bolsheviks against a motley collection of militias known as … The revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion broke out in May 1918, and the legionaries took control of Chelyabinsk in June. "The Tanks: The History Of The Royal Tank Regiment And Its Predecessors, Heavy Branch Machine-Gun Corps, Tank Corps And Royal Tank Corps, 1914–1945. 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